Book chapter 3

Introduction to Surface and Thin Film Processes

John A. Venables

Cambridge University Press (2000)

Supplementary notes by John A. Venables

© Arizona Board of Regents for Arizona State University and John A. Venables


Chapter 3: Electron-based techniques for examining surface and thin film processes

Corrections, comments and updates


3.1 Classification of surface and microscopy techniques

New references for section 3.1

3.2 Diffraction and quasi-elastic scattering techniques

New references for section 3.2

3.3 Inelastic scattering techniques: chemical and electronic state information

In section 3.3.2 on page 80, research using synchrotron radiation is outlined. Synchrotron radiation sources around the world can be accessed via my Synchrotron radiation facilities page.

In section 3.3.3 on page 81, there is an "obvious" error in the description of the Si KLL transition. The final sentence of the first paragraph says: "The final state contains two holes in the K shell". Sorry, L shell might be better.

In section 3.3.4 on page 87, reference is made to the paper by Verdozzi & Cini (1995) in the context of the multiplet structure of Auger CVV transitions. A more recent review of this topic by the same group can be found in Verdozzi et al. (2001), in a special issue of Journal of Electron Spectroscopy containing papers from the 8th International Conference on Electronic Spectroscopy and Structure, held in Berkeley in August 2000.

New references for section 3.3

3.4 Quantification of Auger spectra

In section 3.4.1 on page 91 and figure 3.19b, there is a mismatch between the figure caption, the text and the actual figure. The text and caption refer to Cu and Si, whereas the figure is for Ag and W; the text comments, however, are still valid. In the original paper (Batchelor et al. 1989, page 714, figure 5) all four data sets are given. Somehow, we have got mixed up in the transcription and redrawing from the original figures; I can't believe that it has taken me almost four years to notice this mistake!

In section 3.4.2 on page 92, reference is made to the role of standards organizations (NIST and NPL) specifically, and to consulting businesses offering Auger and other analytical services. Further information can be found via the web in various ways. First, my web-based resources page, Experimental Groups - mostly not STM, contains a section on "Surface analysis groups and service companies using AES, SAM and related techniques", which can be consulted to give a feel for the range of activity in this field. Second, one can check some of the opinions expressed in the book, by visiting the web-sites of the scientists mentioned there by name. For example, Cedric Powell of NIST is chairman of an international working group on Surface chemical Analysis (#TWA2), which is part of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards, codenamed VAMAS. Surface analysis is just one of the areas in which the various national standards organizations collaborate in an ongoing manner.

Martin Seah at NPL also has some of his publications on a NPL Surfaces and Interfaces website which introduces the VAM acronym. Here VAM signifies Valid Analytical Measurement which is a broad UK governmental program, targeted to improve the accuracy of chemical measurements in general, as well as those in the surfaces area.

The 1998 conference QSA-10, mentioned in the book, was part of the large IUVSTA (International Union of Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications), International Vacuum Congress (IVC-14) held in Birmingham, UK. The conference proceedings are published in Applied Surface Science 144-145 [1999] 1-460. You can find details of the IVC Conference series, including the next one, IVC-16, which will be held 28 June - 2 July 2004 in Venice, Italy. QSA-10 is not the latest QSA meeting. QSA-12 took place at the University of Surrey, UK from 8-11 July 2002. It is was renamed QSnA-12: no prizes for guessing what the little-n represents. As noted on these pages, Nano- is everywhere, in this case n-Analysis.

There are also similar US meetings, held every other year just prior to the annual symposium of the American Vacuum Society. The most recent is the 8th Topical Conference on QSA, held in Puyallup, WA on October 22-23, 1999. The 9th conference in this series was held in the vicinity of San Jose, CA on October 26-27, 2001, just prior to the combined IVC-15 and AVS meetings. New program information on Topical Conferences, but limited history, is available on the AVS web site. We have just missed the Surface Analysis 2003, which was held at UIUC from June 3-6.

Finally, in case the above information is seriously more than you need, let me add that I am not in general trying to become the World repository for information of this kind. Conference information can in general be obtained from the websites of the various learned societies, some of which are indicated on my Surface data bases page. I am mostly using these pages for signalling important new references in areas discussed in the book. For example, the topic of attentuation lengths versus inelastic mean free paths is discussed on page 93 of the book. For those who want an update without going to a conference, you can consult a paper by Powell & Jablonski (1999). This provides a detailed review of the topic and an update; their general conclusion, however, remains as in my book, assuming that one limits oneself to the level of detail described there.

New references for section 3.4

3.5 Microscopy-spectroscopy: SEM, SAM, SPM, etc

In section 3.5.4 on page 105, reference is made to Appendix D, my Web-based resources page. Information on some active groups in microscopy-spectroscopy can be found from these pages, with a concentration on Experimental groups -mainly STM, Nanotechnology is everywhere, Experimental groups -mostly not STM and Instrument development and charged particle optics. These pages are updated as and when seems appropriate.

Clearly, the topic of microscopy-spectroscopy is highlighted at both microscopy and spectroscopy conferences, some of which can be found via the above web-pages. Some references may not be so easy to find, unless one stumbles across them more or less accidentally. For example, in preparing an article recently for publication in the Journal of Electron Spectroscopy, I found an article by Bauer (2001) entitled Photoelectron spectromicrosopy: present and future, which I might not have found otherwise. Of course, Ernst and I are colleagues, who have offices on the same corridor, so you might think I would know exactly what he had published recently. Well, it doesn't seem to work quite like that, so why don't you visit his recently completed web pages to find out for yourself.

New references for section 3.5


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Latest version 14 October 2003.