Book Update contents

Introduction to Surface and Thin Film Processes

John A. Venables

Cambridge University Press (2000)

Supplementary notes by John A. Venables

© Arizona Board of Regents for Arizona State University and John A. Venables


Introduction/Preface: Ordering information, plus general comments on references, updating and searching the web. Sections below which contain an update are higlighted in red. Latest version of this page 21 January 2013.
Chapter 1 Introduction to surface processes

1.1 Elementary thermodynamic ideas of surfaces 1.1.1 Thermodynamic potentials and the dividing surface 1.1.2 Surface tension and surface energy 1.1.3 Surface energy and surface stress (New material 21 Jan '09) 1.2 Surface energies and the Wulff theorem 1.2.1 General considerations 1.2.2 The terrace-ledge-kink model 1.2.3 Wulff construction and the forms of small crystals (New material 28 Aug '06) 1.3 Thermodynamics versus kinetics 1.3.1 Thermodynamics of the vapor pressure 1.3.2 The kinetics of crystal growth 1.4 Introduction to surface and adsorbate reconstructions 1.4.1 Overview 1.4.2 General comments and notation 1.4.3 Examples of (1x1) structures 1.4.4 Si(001) (2x1) and related semiconductor structures 1.4.5 The famous 7x7 stucture of Si(111) 1.4.6 Various ‘root-three’ structures 1.4.7 Polar semiconductors, such as GaAs (111) 1.4.8 Ionic crystal structures, such as NaCl, CaF2, MgO or alumina 1.5 Introduction to surface electronics 1.5.1 Work function, f 1.5.2 Electron affinity, c and ionisation potential F. 1.5.3 Surface states and related ideas 1.5.4 Surface Brillouin zone 1.5.5 Band bending, due to surface states 1.5.6 The image force (New material 13 May '02) 1.5.7 Screening


Chapter 2 Surfaces in vacuum: ultra-high vacuum techniques and processes

2.1 Kinetic theory concepts 2.1.1 Arrival rate of atoms at a surface 2.1.2 The molecular density, n (New material 21 Jan '13) 2.1.3 The mean free path, l (New material 21 Jan '13) 2.1.4 The monolayer arrival time, t 2.2 Vacuum concepts 2.2.1 System volumes, leak rates and pumping speeds 2.2.2 The idea of conductance 2.2.3 Measurement of system pressure 2.3 UHV hardware: pumps, tubes, materials and pressure measurement 2.3.1 Introduction: sources of information 2.3.2 Types of pumps 2.3.3 Chambers, tube and flange sizes (New material 7 Jul '02) 2.3.4 Choice of materials 2.3.5 Pressure measurement and gas composition 2.4 Surface preparation and cleaning procedures : in-situ experiments 2.4.1 Cleaning and sample preparation 2.4.2 Procedures for in-situ experiments 2.4.3 Sample transfer devices (New material 2 Sep '00) 2.4.4 From laboratory experiments to production processes 2.5 Thin film deposition procedures: sources of information 2.5.1 Historical descriptions and recent compilations 2.5.2 Thermal evaporation and the uniformity of deposits 2.5.3 Molecular beam epitaxy and related methods 2.5.4 Sputtering and ion-beam assisted deposition 2.5.5 Chemical vapor deposition techniques


Chapter 3 Electron-based techniques for examining surface and thin film processes

3.1 Classification of surface and microscopy techniques 3.1.1 Surface techniques as scattering experiments 3.1.2 Reasons for surface sensitivity 3.1.3 Microscopic examination of surfaces 3.1.4 Acronyms 3.2 Diffraction and quasi-elastic scattering techniques 3.2.1 LEED 3.2.2 RHEED and THEED 3.2.3 Elastic, quasi-elastic and inelastic scattering 3.3 Inelastic scattering techniques: chemical and electronic state information 3.3.1 Electron spectroscopic techniques 3.3.2 Photoelectron spectroscopies: XPS and UPS (New material 21 Oct '00) 3.3.3 Auger electron spectroscopy: energies and atomic physics (New material 11 Mar '01) 3.3.4 AES in solids and at surfaces (New material 14 Oct '03) 3.4 Quantification of Auger spectra 3.4.1 General equation describing quantification (New material 15 Oct '03) 3.4.2 Ratio techniques (New material 13 Aug '03) 3.5 Microscopy-spectroscopy: SEM, SAM, SPM, etc (New material 14 Oct '03) 3.5.1 Scanning electron and Auger microscopy 3.5.2 Auger and image analysis of ‘real world’ samples 3.5.3 Towards the highest spatial resolution: a) SEM/STEM 3.5.4 Towards the highest spatial resolution: b) scanned probe microscopy/ spectroscopy


Chapter 4 Surface processes in adsorption

4.1 Chemi- and physi-sorption 4.2 Statistical physics of adsorption at low coverage 4.2.1. General points 4.2.2 Localized adsorption: the Langmuir adsorption isotherm (New material 26 Mar '05) 4.2.3 The two-dimensional adsorbed gas: Henry law adsorption 4.2.4 Interactions and vibrations in higher density adsorbates 4.3 Phase diagrams and phase transitions 4.3.1 Adsorption in equilibrium with the gas phase (New material 14 Mar '01) 4.3.2 Adsorption out of equilibrium with the gas phase 4.4 Physisorption: interatomic forces and lattice dynamical models 4.4.1 Thermodynamic information from single surface techniques 4.4.2 The crystallography of monolayer solids 4.4.3 Melting in two dimensions 4.4.4 Construction and understanding of phase diagrams (New material 8 Sep '00) 4.5 Chemisorption: quantum mechanical models and chemical practice 4.5.1 Phases and phase transitions of the lattice gas 4.5.2 The Newns-Anderson model and beyond (New material 18 Aug '03) 4.5.3 Chemisorption: the first stages of oxidation 4.5.4 Chemisorption and catalysis: macroeconomics, macromolecules and microscopy (New material 12 Oct '06)


Chapter 5 Surface processes in epitaxial growth

5.1 Introduction: growth modes and nucleation barriers 5.1.1 Why are we studying epitaxial growth? 5.1.2 Simple models- how far can we go? 5.1.3 Growth modes and adsorption isotherms (New material 21 Jan '13) 5.1.4 Nucleation barriers in classical and atomistic models 5.2 Atomistic models and rate equations 5.2.1 Rate equations, controlling energies, and simulations 5.2.2 Elements of rate equation models (New material 21 Jan '13) 5.2.3 Regimes of condensation 5.2.4 General equations for the maximum cluster density (New material 21 Jan '13) 5.2.5 Comments on individual treatments (New material 11 Mar '01) 5.3 Metal nucleation and growth on insulating substrates 5.3.1 Microscopy of island growth: metals on alkali halides 5.3.2 Metals on insulators: checks and complications 5.3.3 Defect-induced nucleation on oxides and fluorides 5.4 Metal deposition studied by UHV microscopies 5.4.1 In-situ UHV SEM and LEEM of metals on metals 5.4.2 FIM studies of surface diffusion on metals 5.4.3 Energies from STM and other techniques 5.5 Steps, ripening and interdiffusion 5.5.1 Steps as 1-dimensional sinks 5.5.2 Steps as sources: diffusion and Ostwald ripening 5.5.3 Interdiffusion in magnetic multilayers


Chapter 6 Electronic structure and emission processes at metallic surfaces

6.1 The electron gas: work function, surface structure and energy 6.1.1 Free electron models and density functionals (New material 14 Oct '03) 6.1.2 Beyond free electrons: work function, surface structure and energy (New material 14 Sep '00) 6.1.3 Values of the work function (New material 26 May '02) 6.1.4 Values of the surface energy 6.2 Electron emission processes 6.2.1 Thermionic emission 6.2.2 Cold field emission (New material 26 May '02) 6.2.3 Adsorption and diffusion: FES, FEM and thermal-field emitters 6.2.4 Secondary electron emission 6.3 Magnetism at surfaces and in thin films (New material 28 Aug '06) 6.3.1 Symmetry, symmetry breaking and phase transitions 6.3.2 Anisotropic interactions in 3D and ‘2D’ magnets. 6.3.3 Magnetic surface techniques 6.3.4 Theories and applications of surface magnetism


Chapter 7 Semiconductor surfaces and interfaces

7.1 Structural and electronic effects at semiconductor surfaces 7.1.1 Bonding in diamond, graphite, Si, Ge, GaAs, etc. 7.1.2 Simple concepts versus detailed computations 7.1.3 Tight-binding pseudopotential models 7.2 Case studies of reconstructed semiconductor surfaces 7.2.1 GaAs (110), a charge-neutral surface 7.2.2 GaAs (111), a polar surface 7.2.3 Si and Ge(111): why are they so different? (New material 24 Oct '00) 7.2.4 Si, Ge and GaAs (001), steps and growth 7.3 Stresses and strains in semiconductor film growth 7.3.1 Thermodynamic and elasticity studies of surfaces (New material 29 Aug '06) 7.3.2 Growth on Si(001) 7.3.3 Strained layer epitaxy: Ge/Si(001) and Si/Ge(001) (New material 21 Jan '02) 7.3.4 Growth of compound semiconductors (New material 24 Oct '00)


Chapter 8 Surface processes in thin film devices

8.1 Metals and oxides in contact with semiconductors 8.1.1 Band bending and rectifying contacts at semiconductor surfaces 8.1.2 Simple models of the depletion region 8.1.3 Techniques for analysing semiconductor interfaces (New material 15 Oct '03) 8.2 Semiconductor heterojunctions and devices 8.2.1 Origins of Schottky barrier heights 8.2.2 Semiconductor heterostructures and band offsets 8.2.3 Opto-electronic devices and ‘band-gap engineering’ (New material 1 Sep '02) 8.2.4 Modulation and d-doping, strained layers, quantum wires and dots 8.3 Conduction processes in thin film devices 8.3.1 Conductivity, resistivity and the relaxation time 8.3.2 Scattering at surfaces and interfaces in nanostructures (New material 13 Sep '00) 8.3.3 Spin dependent scattering and magnetic multilayer devices (New material 17 Nov '07) 8.4 Chemical routes to manufacturing 8.4.1 Synthetic chemistry and manufacturing: the case of Si-Ge-C 8.4.2 Chemical routes to opto-electronics and/or nano-magnetics (New material 12 Aug '03) 8.4.3 Nanotubes and the future of flat panel TV 8.4.4 Combinatorial materials development and analysis (New material 30 Apr '02)


Chapter 9 Postscript: where do we go from here?

9.1 Electromigration and other degradation effects in nanostructures (New material 17 Nov '07) 9.2 What do the various disciplines bring to the table? 9.3 What has been left out: future sources of information (New material 21 Oct '01)


Appendices A-K

Appendix A: Bibliography Appendix B: List of Acronyms Appendix C: Units and conversion factors Appendix D: Resources on the web or CD-ROM (New material 7 Sep '00) Appendix E: Useful thermodynamic relationships Appendix F: Conductances and pumping speeds, C and S (New material 7 Jul '02) Appendix G: Materials for use in ultra-high vacuum Appendix H: UHV component cleaning procedures Appendix J: An outline of local density functional methods (New material 30 Jan '01) Appendix K: An outline of tight binding models


References (New material 29 Aug '06)
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