UHV resources: Vacuum and Materials
UHV resources: Vacuum and Materials
John A. Venables Dept of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University,
and London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London UK.
This is one of several files containing lists of web-based resources for
use in connection with my graduate courses, web-based articles and talks. If
you have items you would like me to add, please email me. However, I am
aiming to be exemplary rather than comprehensive, so please don't be
offended if I leave material out. This document initially produced
in conjunction with Emily McDaniel, 14th July 2001; major update catalysed by Kara McNeil, 4th October 2010.
Vacuum organizations, online books and journals
- The American Vacuum
Society (AVS) site contains many educational resources; these include a long list of
short courses taught by industry professionals
on vacuum materials.
- The AVS Classics
series of texts includes several well-respected titles, which are now published by
- The Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology is published by the
American Institute of Physics (AIP) as
Part A and
- Vacuum Solutions was an
Institute of Physics journal, which could be accessed online. That's the web for you,
easy come, easy go. IoP advise using their
Semiconductor International was a trade magazine for semiconductor information, which
did include issues involving vacuum systems. But now a Google search directs you to a
Reed International website, which explains that they have got out of the Business Information business in the States. The (April 2010) news has been commented on by
Fabtech, so you can take it from there. Good luck! My initial search is runnning dry.
Large-scale vacuum systems
- You may be interested in details of the
vacuum system of the
Large Hadron Collider
CERN in Switzerland. This shows the scale of effort
required for the design, construction and maintenance of a large and complex system.
- Some papers,
session 8C, and other material on the CERN vacuum system have been made available in the
context of conference proceedings. This las semester my students found the paper by O. Gröbner very
useful for an overview. But of course the big interest was in what went wrong in September 2008.
Finding what happened next has somehow got pushed of the front pages of a Google search by
the fact the that the LHC is now producing results. Back to Wired magazine
to get the scoops as of July 2009.
- Synchrotron radiation sources, such as
SRS Daresbury in the UK, have specific vacuum
needs and support groups (Click on SRS Activities, or go direct to the Vacuum Support home page).
A full list of
SR Laboratories is available here on my site.
Materials for use in vacuum
- Start with Assda,
the Australian Stainless Steel Development Association, for an explanation of
the widespread uses and composition of
- The composition of the machinable ceramic Macor can be found on the
International Ceramic Engineering site.
Mycalex is a glass-mica composite whose properties can be found at the
Mykroy-Mycalex site. Both materials
are machined by several companies, including the
Mica-Tron Products Corporation.
- The properties of various forms of
Kapton are set out on the
- For wire insulation, see the
NASA guide to the properties of Kapton, Teflon and related plastics and their outgassing
properties in space. This was part of the
materials selection effort at the
Goddard Space Fight Center. But now you may be better employed searching the whole of NASA for Materials Selection.
- Some comments which overlap with those in my book,
Appendix G, on
Vacuum Materials are made on
a website in Alberta, in a teaching context, but these should not be taken literally
for UHV applications. This page is just one page of
Roy Schmaus's site
devoted to Vacuum Technology.
- In telling me that the above site didn't work (the address for the department had changed),
Kara McNeill alerted me to a
Vacuum Beginners Guide that she has found useful. I always like to receive such comments, which prompt
me to update the links, even if not immediately. Thank you Kara!
Commercial equipment suppliers
- Varian is a well-known
supplier of vacuum products, now part of Agilent Technologies in the USA, or Agilent in the UK.
- Vacuum Generators is now called
it sells pumps, traps, fittings, gaskets and many other vacuum-related items and systems.
- Helix Technology now has a more standard website from
a few years ago, when it had a beautifully designed, but rather slow home page (yes, KISS,
this is good). The firm sells pumps and tools for measurment and control, amongst other
things. This firm also markets Cryopumps originally sold under the CTI-Cryogenics® label.
- There are many other commercial suppliers in this field, who advertize in journals, sponsor
conferences and exhibit at trade shows. Good luck, guys!
General measurement, standards information and other Links
- They have UHV
pressure standards at the
NPL in Teddington, near London, UK.
- Pressure, and other measurements, should be traceable to the standards maintained at
NIST. If you want to find out more about this process, do a
Google Search on the topic.
- It's quicker that way, and more up to date. a few years ago I
found a page on
Thermodynamic quantities A: Pressure Measurements for my surfing pains, but, as you
can see, it isn't there now...
- But more recently, using the search on
"pressure measurement" I found MKS Instruments,
who have a remarkable range of high precision pressure and flow control equipment; but now this is way down the list on Google. As an example, see more details on how
Baratron capacitance gauges work. While you are about it, check out the market for Search Engine Opimizers (SEO), which is a major growth industry...
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