High spatial resolution studies of surfaces and small
particles using electron beam techniques
J.A. Venables and J. Liu,
J. Electron Spectroscopy 143 (2005) 205-218,
available online from Elsevier
A brief review is given of studies of surfaces and small particles
using electron beam techniques. The principal tools are secondary, Auger
and backscattered electrons, either energy-filtered using various types
of analyzers, or as a stronger signal with coarser energy filtering.
These tools have been deployed in wide-beam surface science instruments,
but also increasingly in scanning electron and scanning transmission
electron microscopes, especially in ultra-high vacuum instruments capable
of analyzing clean surfaces. The different choices that need to be made are
illustrated with examples of clean surfaces, thin films and catalyst particles
at high spatial resolution.
Latest version of this document: 22nd February 2010.